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Parisian styles spread throughout Europe and then to the Atlantic, first reaching the major port of Havana, Cuba in addition to Rio de Janeiro and Buenos Aires , and eventually spreading to other cities, towns, and villages. Since its inception in , YouTube, for example, has become a means for individuals to document, store and safeguard global performing arts outside of the jurisdiction of official, centrally structured organizations such as UNESCO. Traditional cultural forms, as previously mentioned, are defined as practices that have been passed on from one generation to the next and that express the identity of a people β€” in this context, the African-derived heritage in Cuban culture. Traditional cultures are distinct from commercial forms, which are transmitted and promoted via businesses, commercial establishments, and media. Many of these practices are being, nonetheless, stored today through the unofficial archiving of moving images on the Internet, facilitated by Web 2. Unlike the Spanish, who favoured the zapateo, a southern Andalucian dance tradition, over the court dances, the French settlers chose to emulate the luxuriance of the French court by maintaining these European social dances in the New World and performing them in the courtly style of a half-toe position, in which the body weight was centered on the ball of the foot Daniel Whereas the dances of the eighteenth century eventually became unfashionable in the ballrooms and salons of wealthy white Cubans, for more than two centuries among franceses negros they thrived in their modified forms in the tumba francesa Viddal Couples parade while executing curtseys and bows as well as ceremonial and constrained dance steps. Furthermore, intangible cultural forms that may appear traditional could have incorporated commercial elements in their development. Many of these practices, nonetheless, are being stored today through the unofficial archiving of moving online images, facilitated by Web 2. The elite cultures of the West retain their privileged status in the sense that they are not characterized as oral, a quality that has been stereotypically connected with less developed cultural forms. Despite these restrictive conditions, ceremonies were still held privately And In the s fewer limitations were imposed on the ceremony. Research on culture, nonetheless, reveals that intangible cultural practices may combine the traditional with the commercial. This embodied formality is set off by energetic and driving percussive music Viddal Tumba francesa is a Cuban tradition whose roots encompass diverse areas of the world that extend well beyond a particular nation or neighbouring nations: western Europe, especially France; Haiti; and Dahomey, West Africa, which is today the Republic of Benin. The idea that intangible cultures can be concretized into objects counters the very nature of culture, which is a living process and performance, constantly transforming and changing. These masterpieces have been listed in its Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, tabled in Aikawa-Faure 13 and revised in subsequent lists set forth in , , and Aikawa-Faure asserts that the Proclamation of Masterpieces program and the Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention were interconnected: the Proclamation of Masterpieces program acted as a stepping stone for the development of the Convention on the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Aikawa-Faure The process of setting up lists of intangible heritage as well as the content of these catalogues themselves reproduce an understanding of global culture that fosters hierarchies and divisions. At the same time, these catalogues do take into account that a particular culture can be part of various nations. Furthermore, many intangible cultures cannot be circumscribed within the boundaries of a particular nation or defined group either in their contemporary performances or in historical developments. Hafstein, is even more uncertain than the former criterion of excellence These lists of intangible heritage create global and universal standards and in turn become a metaculture that stands outside the lived manifestation of culture Kirshenblatt-Gimblett These lists remove specific cultural practices from their contexts and freeze them into either superior or representative artifacts to be preserved and admired. These presumptions have led UNESCO to misinterpret the function of commercial influences within intangible heritage and not fully account for the global influences within cultural expressions as well as the fundamental changeable nature of culture itself. As mentioned above, the process of selling culture is believed to lead to increased homogenization and simplification of traditional forms, which are often beheld as more complex and original expressions. The commodification of culture is often viewed as a process that sabotages tradition by altering or even corrupting its original expression. These dances were transmitted through the global migration of culture. Research on the history and development of the tumba francesa and the casino reveals that they share some common characteristics.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} Fourth, it is proposed that the practice on the part of individuals to upload videos of performance practices on video-sharing sites, of which YouTube is exemplar, is becoming an unofficial means to conserve intangible heritage in a manner that more fully captures its developments in actual circumstances. The casino is a genre that absorbs a diversity of forms from the rich repertoire of dances that thrive in Cuba. To place traditional culture above commercial forms becomes to a certain extent meaningless, as tradition and commodification may intertwine during the development of particular cultures. Despite this assumption, research on culture reveals the way that the commercial and the traditional often fuse, blurring the distinction between these two categories. According to many developing nations, the World Heritage List favoured western European nations by privileging the monuments and sites of industrial Europe Aikawa-Faure 15; Skounti 79; Hafstein Despite their potential to redress this imbalance, both lists of intangible heritage β€” the Proclamation of Masterpieces and the Representative List β€” exclude the high arts of western Europe from the domain of oral culture. The Proclamation of Masterpieces as well as its continuation in the Representative List place various cultural forms above others both within the contexts of particular nations and across the globe. Living cultures are highly susceptible to becoming extinct. This paper progresses in various stages. First, a description of the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage is provided to emphasizes how UNESCO defines intangible heritage as traditional expressions, developed without commercial interactions. Under the Intangible Cultural Heritage Convention ICHC , the understanding of intangible culture parallels our notion of the traditional in the sense that they both can be defined as customs and practices, generally associated with the identity of a particular group or community, which are transmitted from one generation to the next primarily within an oral context. In the catalogue, this same intangible cultural heritage is equally accredited to four nations: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}To browse Academia. The commercialization of this form has led to its global status. The intangible performing arts that are commonly deemed worthy of preservation by organizations such as UNESCO are often those regarded as traditional practices that reflect the identity of a specific nation or group. For instance, the online description, featured on the UNESCO website, of the intangible heritage of the Mevlevi Sema Ceremony of Turkey which includes the dance of the whirling dervish describes how the commercialization of this practice in the tourist industry has resulted in the performance of more compressed and less complex ceremonies UNESCO a. Through the case studies of various Caribbean performing arts, this paper illustrates how cultural research can provide a comprehensive understanding of intangible culture in both its lived and digital contexts, knowledge that in turn challenges the process of categorization and the measures of preservation of intangible heritage proposed by UNESCO. The European dances that arrived in Cuba and the Caribbean originated in Paris, the international capital of fashionable dances. However, they do not acknowledge the highly global nature of cultural forms that may have developed through extensive migrations of people and cultures across vast territories and regions and that could also be experiencing contemporary changes as people, commodities, and cultures move around the world. Similarly, the tumba francesa today is maintained by only three tumba francesa societies funded by UNESCO and the Cuban government , whose audiences are primarily tourists. Texts, codes, paradigms, essences, and substances are merely abstractions from lived productions and practices These lists of masterpieces generally distinguish culture along national lines since individual intangible forms are credited to specific nations. The value bestowed on commercial intangible arts often lies in their link to their traditional heritage rather than in their commercial aspects, which are often viewed in a negative light. In the Mevlevi Sema Ceremony was rekindled, with the restriction that it could be performed only in public settings conceded to by the Turkish government. As previously mentioned, a traditional culture is often passed from one generation to the next within the community setting and outside of formal instruction and commercialization. Just as intangible arts regarded as traditional expressions may incorporate a certain level of commercialism, the commodification of popular intangible arts could reinterpret tradition. Traditional forms are distinct from commercial ones, which are disseminated within and linked to various businesses, such as theatres, studies, clubs, and music venues, and which are often marketed and promoted through various forms of media, such as print, television, film, and more recently, the Internet. These French court dances, which had also previously been brought by the Spanish, additionally included the contredanse, quadrilles, minuets, and cotillions. These dances embody the orishas, or spirits, of the Yoruba pantheon Gillon The rumba is an Afro-Cuban secular music and dance genre that summons African musical and dance vernacular and contains neither European melodic influences nor chordal instruments. Cuban casino has become a worldwide phenomenon through dance lessons promoted at studios and clubs in cities around the world; it has also reached areas outside of Cuba via various forms of media, such as videos, film, television, and the Internet. Although European dances were initially learned by the upper class, they eventually trickled down to the lower social strata Chasteen One of the first known teachers from Europe was a Spaniard called Ortiz the Musician, who gave dance lessons in Mexico City as early as Chasteen During the colonial period, dance masters taught international elite styles from Europe, such as the minuet and the contredanse, in urban centers in Latin America. Despite its Cuban roots, the casino has been disseminated to the world and is performed in cities throughout the globe. To counter this potential homogeneity, strategies have been developed to preserve those cultures whose very existence could be threatened. Various choreographic patterns from dances of Afro-Cuban origin, for instance, have also been integrated into the casino. Cultural Research and Intangible Heritage Culture, Cultural Research and Intangible Heritage. Hence commercial performing arts that incorporate the traditional may also be worthy of preservation. One of the key reasons why states nominate traditional practices for inclusion in the Proclamation of Masterpieces is to promote tourism. These classifications do recognize that a singular culture can be multinational, evolving in nations that are geographically close. The tumba francesa is considered a traditional dance of Cuba, yet if we look closely at its history, commercialism is intertwined with its development. Conducting research on culture blurs the clear distinction that has been set up between the traditional and commercial. The casino, or Cuban salsa dance, has been flourishing and evolving in Cuba since the s Linares ; Balbuena This highly commercial dance, nonetheless, combines aspects of Cuban culture that could be regarded as traditional. Fusing Traditional and Commercial Culture: The Cuban Casino To illustrate how popular commercial practices interconnect with traditional forms, I will use the example of the historical development and contemporary performance of a specific Cuban dance, the casino, which is regarded as the Cuban form of salsa. The rumba was developed in the early nineteenth century by diverse peoples from West and Central Africa who were brought to Cuba as slaves Pietrobruno Movements and steps from the makuta and yuka have also been assimilated into the casino Balbuena The makuta and yuka were performed by enslaved people from the Congo and by their descendants Santos Gracia and Armas Rigal The cabildos offered a venue to preserve the sacred and secular traditions of diverse African groups, particularly the ancient traditional dances, which the onslaught of slavery had tried to obliterate through a brutal process of deculturation Guerra Despite being deeply rooted in the Afro-Cuban tradition, the casino is also linked to the elite French court dance of the late eighteenth century: the basic step of the casino stems from the European contredanse. The ICHC also suggests that the intangible cultures that are commonly deemed in need of preservation are primarily those regarded as part of tradition. Chasteen furnishes the example of a formal ball among prosperous blacks in the s where dancers performed quadrilles and waltzes while paying careful attention to European rules of convention and etiquette Researching the history of the tumba francesa provides insights into the way this practice, regarded as a traditional form of culture, developed in part through the commercialization of the elite dance culture of Europe. Skip to main content. Keywords: UNESCO; intangible heritage; popular performing arts; tradition; commodification; video-sharing sites; tumba francesa; Cuban casino, salsa dance. Its forms are, among others, language, literature, music, dance, games, mythology, rituals, customs, handicrafts, architec- ture and other arts. Log In Sign Up. Although traditional cultures are often viewed as static and frozen in time, in their actual embodiment they undergo change and are influenced by outside forces. This intangible cultural heritage, transmitted from generation to generation, is constantly recreated by communities and groups in response to their environment, their interaction with nature and their history, and provides them with a sense of identity and continuity, thus promoting respect for cultural diversity and human creativity. Although they started providing lessons only to the wealthy in their homes, dance masters in nineteenth-century Havana also eventually gave studio classes to those who could not afford private lessons Affluent whites were not the only ones who danced the European courtly styles: well-to-do blacks who could bear the expense of learning the upper-class fashions performed styles from Europe. It refers to the dance culture created by Haitians of African descent who were brought to Cuba as enslaved peoples by the French colonials Daniel French colonial families introduced an aristocratic dance culture to Cuba patterned after court dancing in Europe that has been transformed into the tumba francesa. This study illustrates how cultural research can provide a comprehensive understanding of intangible culture in both its lived and digital contexts, knowledge that in turn challenges the process of categorization and the measures of preservation of intangible heritage proposed by UNESCO. Nonetheless, during the thirty years that this ceremony was held and practiced in secret, there was a greater focus placed on music and songs than on its spiritual and religious aspects, which have divested the performance of a significant part of its religious implications UNESCO a. The fragility of intangible cultures lies in their being sustained through lived circumstances and stored in human bodies and minds rather than in documents, artifacts, and forms of media. The Sema Ceremony has since been further modified to make it an appealing spectacle for tourists.